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A spontaneous abortion is a process that can be divided into 4 stages—threatened, inevitable, incomplete, and complete. Most studies do not differentiate separately between the epidemiology and pathophysiology of each entity.
The combination of oxidative stress, a more hypoxic environment, and defective placentation may lead to increased serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) concentrations, which in turn, may play a role in the pathophysiology of early pregnancy loss.
The discriminatory zone is the level of h CG beyond which a normal, singleton, intrauterine pregnancy is consistently visible by ultrasound.Occasionally, a normal intrauterine pregnancy does result.Depending on the clinical scenario, a clinician may choose to observe this patient with serial h CG levels and ultrasonography instead of intervening, or a clinician may need to intervene depending on the situation.Therefore, having a universal discriminatory zone is difficult, and it optimally should be calculated at each site.Some studies recommend that a gestational sac should be visualized by 5.5 weeks' gestation; a gestational sac should be visualized with an h CG level of 1500-2400 m IU/m L for transvaginal ultrasound or with an h CG level over 3000 m IU/m L for a transabdominal ultrasound.