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Archaeological remains include the items used for the production of food, such as wine or olive presses; stone and metal implements used in the preparation of food; and amphorae, jars, storerooms and grain pits used for storage.
Animal bones provide evidence of meat consumption, the types of animals eaten, and whether they were kept for milk production or other uses, while paleobotanical remains, such as seeds or other carbonized or desiccated plant remains provide information about plant foods.
During the Chalcolithic period (4300 – 3300 BCE), large pottery containers indicative of settled peoples, appear in the archaeological record.
Date palm cultivation began in the Jordan River Valley, and the earliest date pits have been discovered at Ein Gedi by the Dead Sea.
During the later Iron Age (Iron Age II) period, roughly the same period as the Israelite and Judean monarchies, olive oil and wine were produced on a large scale for commerce and export, as well as for local consumption.
Written and archaeological evidence indicate that the diet also included other products from plants, trees and animals.
The food of ancient Israel was similar to that of other ancient Mediterranean diets.
Pottery was imported from Cyprus and Mycenae in Greece for the first time, probably for use as good quality tableware.Other texts, such as the Dead Sea Scrolls, Apocryphal works, the New Testament, the Mishnah and the Talmud also provide information.Epigraphic sources include ostraca from Samaria and Arad.Ugarit and Phoenicia were closer neighbors of ancient Israel, and shared a topography and climate similar to that of ancient Israel.Thus, conclusions about the food and drink in ancient Israel have been made with some confidence from this evidence.